Dodaj artykuł  


Inne artykuły

Świat utkany 
11 sierpień 2017      Jolanta Michna
Kultura w kościołach 
27 luty 2016      Artur Łoboda
W komitecie poparcia Komorowskiego 
22 maj 2015      Artur Łoboda
Mam nadzieję, że przyjdzie czas odzyskania tego co zostało sprzedane  
31 styczeń 2017      Alina
Mniej słów, mniej szkód 
13 kwiecień 2014      Artur Łoboda
Wypełnić lukę kulturową 
16 grudzień 2013      Artur Łoboda
Kultura dnia codziennego 
10 maj 2013      Artur Łoboda
Niech Naród wybiera sędziów a nie politycy!  
29 grudzień 2017      MaxTVNews
„Jeśli my zapomnimy o Nich, Ty Boże zapomnij o nas” 
9 padziernik 2014      Artur Łoboda
"Bohaterowie" 80. milionów 
2 grudzień 2016     
Donald Trump o Angeli Merkel 
9 lipiec 2017      Alina
Wizyta Obamy w Chinach po Japonii 
16 listopad 2009      Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski
Demokracja - najciemniejsza pod latarnią  
5 kwiecień 2018     
Platforma Obywatelska zachęca do udziału w Marszu!  
6 maj 2017     
Jedni zrobią z nas żydów, inni antysemitów  
25 kwiecień 2013      Artur Łoboda
Tylko na Stalina i Hitlera nie wpływano w ten sposob 
1 luty 2014      Artur Łoboda
Zapętlona prowokacja 
23 maj 2014      Artur Łoboda
Komorowski dla młodzieży 
13 maj 2015     
Agresję na Polskę realizują wedle tych samych kryterii 
18 maj 2013      Artur Łoboda
Dobry Niemiec - to martwy Niemiec 
23 czerwiec 2017     


The Plunder of Warsaw Jewry During World War II and its Aftermath, by Itamar Levin

Review of Walls Around: The Plunder of Warsaw Jewry During World War II and its Aftermath, by Itamar Levin. 2004. Praeger Publishers. Westport, Connecticut, and London.
Reviewer: Mr. Jan Peczkis

Whose Golden Harvest? Exploitation and Plunder of the Living and Dead Conducted by Non-Jews and Jews Alike. Property Restitution
Holocaust-uniqueness proponents have argued that, whereas the genocides of non-Jews all had rational economic motives (notably the acquisition of the properties of the victims), that of Jews was completely irrational. Levin challenges this. He cites Franz Stangl, the Kommandant of Treblinka, who spoke of acquiring Jewish wealth as the goal, and with racial philosophies assuming secondary importance in the conduct of the Holocaust. (p. xi, 171). Levin presents impressive evidence of the progressive German exploitation of the 450,000 ghettoized Warsaw Jews in German-occupied Poland. So poor did the Jews become that they could not care for each other, and 100,000 of them died from starvation, exposure, and disease (between the September 1939 War and the first shipments of Jews to Treblinka)(July 1942).(p. 4). This was too slow for the Germans (p. 27), so they switched to systematic mass murder. The haul of Jewish wealth from the 870,000 Treblinka victims alone was staggering: 1,200 to 1,350 railway cars. (p. 180). (For more on the German economic motives behind the Holocaust, see the Peczkis review of Architects of Annihilation: Auschwitz and the Logic of Destruction).

The author briefly mentions the comparable Nazi actions against Poles. He comments: "As a direct result of this policy, non-Jewish Poles were allocated food rations that barely sustained them, as most output was sent westward to Germany...the average Pole lived on a mere 600 calories per day..." (pp. 10-11).

In the first parts of this work, the author relies primarily on Warsaw Ghetto Jewish chroniclers. Oddly enough, Levin (p. 270) considers Ringelblum as being a pro-Polish historian for making some statements with which whom Levin disagrees.

Jan T. Gross, in his FEAR and GOLDEN HARVEST, would have the readers conclude that theft of Jewish property is some kind of particular Polish vice. Levin also elaborates on Poles stealing from Jews (pp. 84-90), often as the result of German enticements (e. g., p. 145), and Polish riffraff (Krolikowski's term) buying confiscated Jewish items from Ukrainian collaborators near Treblinka (p.176). However, he is objective enough to recognize that such conduct was not limited to any nationality. He comments: "Cases of blackmail, or taking advantage of the deportation for individual personal gain, serve to illustrate how corrupt their perpetrators had become--Germans, Poles, and Jews alike." (p. 148).

Levin adds: "Jews taking advantage of other people's terrible circumstances for their own personal gain is a particularly painful chapter in the history of the Holocaust and the Warsaw Ghetto. In some instances, they were simply blackmailers and cheats; in other cases, informers and collaborators." (p. 90). The author devotes several pages to this conduct. (pp. 90-99). Jewish informers, some of whom had been coerced while others who had acted freely, repeatedly told the Germans where Jewish wealth was concealed. Many corrupt Jews took bribes and ransom, and engaged in extortion. "The Thirteen", a Jewish Gestapo, headed by Abraham Gancwajch, was particularly odious in this regard. (pp. 94-99).

Pole-on-Jew grave robbery has gotten a lot of one-sided media attention owing to Jan T. Gross and his ZLOTE ZNIWA (GOLDEN HARVEST). Jews also exploited the Jewish dead. Levin cites Ringelblum, who wrote: "`Undertakers open graves, take out the jewels and gold teeth...Unspeakably base acts are happening at the cemetery. Mass graves [and] defilement of the dead by the lower orders, who throw them into the graves like dogs...they open graves at night, pull out gold teeth and steal the shrouds.'" (p. 98). Rachel Auerbach, also cited by Levin, compared Jewish looting of the dead with its poverty-driven Polish counterpart. She said: "`It turns out that a large percentage of items available today for trade come from looting dead bodies. Specialized companies, who make a living from this, strip the clothes from dead bodies lying in the street...We hear examples of brutality and indifference to death that beforehand could only be found among the village peasants--and then only because of their cruel and difficult living circumstances.'" (p. 98).

While there were post-WWII Poles who resented Jews coming back alive, other Poles welcomed them. (pp. 194-195). No one knows how many Polish Jews survived the Holocaust, because so many Jews kept their Jewishness secret. Interestingly, Levin (p. 229) cites an estimate, based on confessions to priests, that there may be about 50,000 Jews who, as children, had been raised by Poles. (p. 229).

The author provides a history of postwar Jewish property-restitution claims against Poland (especially since 1989). To begin with, how much did the Jews once own? There were 6,000 Jewish communal properties throughout Poland (p. 221), while estimates of the value of private properties in Warsaw alone are unverifiable, and range from a few billion to 40 billion. (p. 248). There are numerous other practical problems regarding this issue. Levin adds: "From an economic and legal standpoint, the principle of returning nationalized property is complicated. Under the Communist system, everything belonged to the state." (p. 225). The author does not mention the Holocaust Industry, but does ask which Jewish individuals or groups presume to speak for the Jewish dead.

The author alludes to the danger of creating new grievances during the attempt to rectify old ones: "Is it possible to evict someone today who innocently believes he or she owns a given property, in favor of the heir of someone who owned the property sixty years ago?" (p. 225). "Should representatives of the Jewish people...approach handicapped [Polish] children and demand that they vacate a formerly Jewish hospital?" (p. 224).

Levin considers statute of limitation laws as unfair (because few Jews were in position to make claims during the relevant time period), but does not answer for whom such laws should be waived (Jews only, or also non-Jews?), or to how far back they should be waived (75 years, or 750 years?). Furthermore, recounting the almost total destruction of Warsaw during WWII, how does one deal with properties that no longer exist, and which have new buildings in their place? Finally, Levin realizes that Poland could not afford to pay major property claims against her. (p. 4).

8 marzec 2011

przysłał ICP 





Rze? kormoraniątek i dziaciaczków
czerwiec 21, 2005
Mirosław Naleziński, Gdynia
"Mondre rady, mondre rady, mondre rady..."
grudzień 22, 2008
Artur Łoboda
Portal widmo
maj 16, 2003
Kredyty gotówkowe - kosimy ceny! Decyzja kredytowa następnego dnia Nie wymagamy dodatkowych zabezpieczeń
czerwiec 27, 2007
Za zacieśnieniem integracji z Unią Europejską, choćby kosztem resztek suwerenności.
marzec 6, 2009
Co nas czeka w 2003?. Rozmowa z Jadwigą Staniszkis i Tomaszem Żukowskim Nowy rok, nowy rząd, nowy premier
styczeń 2, 2003
Oświadczenie numer 1. złożone w Sądzie w dniu 1.12.2004.
grudzień 5, 2004
Dariusz Benedykt Ciesielski
Głupota, która boli
padziernik 26, 2004
Elegancja Francja
kwiecień 29, 2007
Olaf Swolkień
Idziemy do referendum!
czerwiec 6, 2003
Śmiertelne strztrzały w Haditha
grudzień 23, 2006
Tłum: T.v.R
Chłopcy beztwarzowcy
wrzesień 6, 2002
Zaostrzone mają być przestępstwa przeciwko życiu i zdrowiu
maj 4, 2007
Marek Olżyński
Obłęd KLIKA - Kabaret Autorów Marek Sobczak & Antoni Szpak
maj 25, 2002
Soros skazany
grudzień 20, 2002
Panstwa Europy Wschodniej
wrzesień 27, 2006
Odsiedział 18 lat za ujawnienie planów atomowych Izraela
kwiecień 25, 2004
Policjanci izraelscy użyli dziecka jako żywej tarczy
kwiecień 25, 2004
Nie w naszym imieniu
marzec 24, 2003
Chutzpah Czyli Bezczelność Ekstremistów żydowskich
marzec 5, 2005
Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski


Fundacja Promocji Kultury
Copyright © 2002 - 2012 Polskie Niezależne Media